Jeffrey Sprecher, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Intercontinental Exchange
Chairman, New York Stock Exchange

Jeff Sprecher is Founder, Chairman and CEO of Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE), Chairman of the New York Stock Exchange, and a pioneer of digital networks and the electronification of trading and marketplaces.

Reflecting Sprecher’s vision and leadership, ICE, co-headquartered in Atlanta and New York, has grown from a startup in in 2000, purely focused on making energy trading transparent, to a diversified, subscription-driven Fortune 500 company with nearly 10,000 employees. ICE operates exchanges and clearinghouses around the world, provides market-leading solutions in fixed income and data services, and is transforming the mortgage industry by digitizing the end-to-end process of buying a home. Now in its third decade, the company that Sprecher and his team have built, through organic growth and acquisitions, delivers over $6 billion in annual revenue with market capitalization of over $75 billion.

It started with an entrepreneur’s dream and $1,000. That’s what Sprecher paid to buy the struggling Continental Power Exchange in 1997, in addition to assuming the company’s outstanding debt.

Born and raised in Madison, Wisconsin, educated as a chemical engineer at the University of Wisconsin and an MBA at Pepperdine, Sprecher learned early on in his parents’ garage how to break down systems to their component parts and rebuild them better, faster, and more resilient. It started with a toaster oven at age six, advanced to a Toyota and, decades later, expanded to global asset exchanges.

Sprecher began on a shoestring by spotting inefficiencies in the power market and resolving to fix them. Tirelessly enlisting major banks, energy companies, and utilities to his cause, Intercontinental Exchange was born, eventually going public on the New York Stock Exchange in 2005 under the ticker symbol ICE. From its humble beginnings, a string of innovations and acquisitions quickly followed, beginning with buying the International Petroleum Exchange in 2001, the New York Board of Trade in 2007, Creditex in 2008, the Clearing Corporation in 2009 the Climate Exchange in 2010 and the NYSE itself in 2013.

The deals Sprecher put together created what are now known as ICE Futures Europe, ICE Clear Europe, ICE Futures U.S., and ICE Clear U.S., and led to a top-to-bottom reimagination and expansion of the NYSE, now known as NYSE Group. But exchanges and clearinghouses are only part of the ICE story. ICE’s major acquisition of Interactive Data Corporation in 2015 and a string of deals in the mortgage space, culminating in its purchase of Elle Mae in 2020, have coalesced into two other business segments -- ICE Fixed Income and Data Services, and ICE Mortgage Technology -- together forming today’s company.

Along the way, as the world evolves toward a more digital, efficient, and green future, ICE continues to innovate under Sprecher’s leadership. The company, formed with a simple idea and small check, now helps in myriad ways to drive transparency in trading, clearing, capital formation and risk management; it advances technology through its high quality and market leading data and solutions; and now it makes the dream of home ownership easier and less expensive for millions by digitizing the mortgage process.

Sprecher is often credited with “seeing around corners” in the intersecting world of finance and technology. These days, amid the energy transition, that trait is underscored by his anticipation years ago of the globalization of natural gas and demand for carbon-offset trading. Similarly, Sprecher’s launch of Bakkt in 2018 foresaw expanded adoption of bitcoin and digital assets. In reality, seeing around corners is a theme woven throughout Sprecher’s more than 20 years of creating, leading, and growing ICE. For that, and for delivering to ICE shareholders a consistent compound annual growth rate of 17% over the span of 2006 to 2020, Sprecher has been hailed as one Barron’s “World’s Best CEOs” for six consecutive years, among a host of other honors and awards for his leadership and philanthropy.


Benjamin Jackson, President,
Intercontinental Exchange

Ben Jackson is President of Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE). Jackson oversees ICE’s global technology, information security, operations and is responsible for coordinating global futures and OTC trading businesses. Additionally, he leads the integration planning and execution of ICE’s acquisitions and joint ventures as well as coordinating sales, marketing and public relation endeavors.

Jackson previously served as Chief Commercial Officer for Intercontinental Exchange, and prior to that President and Chief Operating Officer of ICE Futures U.S. Jackson joined ICE in July 2011 from SunGard, a leading software and technology provider to commodity market participants. At SunGard, he led the company's energy and commodities business segment as Senior Executive Vice President. Prior to that, he served as President of SunGard's Kiodex commodity risk management platform.

Jackson earned a Bachelor of Science degree in economics from John Carroll University with supporting studies at the London School of Economics and Political Science.


Warren Gardiner, Chief Financial Officer,
Intercontinental Exchange

Warren Gardiner has served as Chief Financial Officer of Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE) since May 2021. He is responsible for all aspects of ICE’s finance and accounting functions, treasury, tax, audit and controls and investor relations. From July 2017 to May 2021, Gardiner served as ICE’s VP of Investor Relations where he led strategic and financial communications with ICE’s stakeholders as well as playing an integral role in the Company’s business development initiatives.

Gardiner brings over 15 years of financial analysis and research experience. Before joining ICE in 2017, he served as a research analyst covering Financial Information and Exchanges equities at Evercore. Prior to that, he was an equity research analyst at Barclays.

Gardiner earned a Bachelor of Arts in Managerial Economics from Union College and is a CFA Charterholder.


David Goone, Chief Strategy Officer,
Intercontinental Exchange

Dave Goone is Chief Strategy Officer of Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE). He is responsible for all aspects of ICE's product line, including futures products and capabilities for ICE's electronic platform.

Goone represents ICE on industry boards including the Options Clearing Corporation, National Futures Association and the Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation. Additionally, he is a Director of ICE Mortgage Services, the governing board of MERSCORP Holdings, Inc.

Prior to joining ICE in 2001, Goone was Managing Director and Head of Product Development and Sales at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. Before joining the CME in 1992, Goone served as a Vice President at Indosuez Carr Futures, where he was instrumental in developing institutional and corporate business. Prior to joining Indosuez, Goone worked at Chase Manhattan Bank, where he developed and managed the company's exchange-traded foreign currency options operation at CME.

Goone earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Accountancy from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.


Lynn Martin, President,
Fixed Income & Data Services,
Intercontinental Exchange

Lynn Martin is President of Fixed Income & Data Services at Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE). Martin is responsible for managing ICE's global data and fixed income businesses including the ICE Bonds execution venues and pricing and analytics, reference data, indices, desktop solutions, consolidated feeds and connectivity services that cover all major asset classes.

Martin previously served as President of ICE Data Services and COO of ICE Clear U.S. Prior to ICE’s acquisition of NYSE Euronext in 2013, Martin served in a number of leadership roles, including CEO of NYSE Liffe U.S. and CEO of New York Portfolio Clearing. She began her career at IBM in their Global Services organization where she served a variety of functions, predominately as a project manager within the financial services practice.

Martin holds a BS in Computer Science from Manhattan College and a MA in Statistics from Columbia University. She serves on the Manhattan College Board of Trustees as well as the Advisory Board of the School of Science and is a member of the Phi Beta Kappa National Honor Society.


Trabue Bland, President,
ICE Futures U.S.

Trabue Bland is President of ICE Futures U.S., a regulated futures exchange and a subsidiary of Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE). He also serves on the Commodity Futures Trading Commission Energy and Environmental Markets Advisory Committee. Bland previously served as VP of Regulation where he managed ICE’s regulatory efforts globally, with an emphasis on CFTC regulation.

Prior to joining ICE in 2007, Bland was Legal Counsel to Acting Chairman Walter Lukken at the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. He was also a trial attorney in the Division of Enforcement and an attorney in the Division of Clearing and Intermediary Oversight.

Before joining the Commission, Bland was in private practice at Balch and Bingham, LLP. He served on the staff of Senator Thad Cochran before attending law school. Bland is a graduate of Washington and Lee University and the University of Mississippi School of Law.


Timothy J. Bowler, President,
ICE Benchmark Administration

Timothy J. Bowler is President of ICE Benchmark Administration, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE). IBA combines robust regulatory and governance frameworks with advanced technology to bring credibility and trust to globally important benchmarks.

Prior to joining ICE Benchmark Administration in October of 2017, Bowler was a managing director in the Financial Institutions Group at Goldman Sachs advising U.S. depository institutions. Before returning to Goldman Sachs in 2016, Bowler was Counselor to Secretary Lew at the U.S. Treasury. In that function, he was responsible for advising the Secretary on matters related to Housing Finance Reform and troubled municipalities including the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. He previously served as the U.S. Treasury’s Acting Assistant Secretary for Financial Stability and Deputy Assistant Secretary for the Office of Capital Markets.

Before the U.S. Treasury, Bowler was a managing director in Goldman Sachs’ Financial Institutions Group and held various capital markets and risk management roles at JPMorgan.

Bowler earned a Bachelor of Science degree with a concentration in Finance from the College of William and Mary.


Stacey Cunningham, President,
NYSE Group

Stacey Cunningham is President of NYSE Group and a member of the executive management committee of parent company, Intercontinental Exchange (NYSE: ICE). NYSE Group includes the New York Stock Exchange, the world’s largest equity exchange and premier venue for capital raising, as well as a diverse range of equity and equity options exchanges.

Most recently, she was the NYSE COO where she was responsible for NYSE’s five equity markets and two options markets, leading the company’s strategy for its equities, equity derivatives and ETF businesses. Prior to serving as COO, Cunningham was President of NYSE Governance Services and served as Head of Sales & Relationship Management at NYSE. Before joining NYSE, Cunningham held several senior positions at Nasdaq.

Cunningham has a degree in Industrial Engineering from Lehigh University, and currently sits on the Board of Directors for Catalyst and the Partnership for New York City.


Christopher Edmonds, Global Head of Clearing & Risk,
Intercontinental Exchange

Chris Edmonds is the Global Head of Clearing & Risk at Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE). Edmonds oversees all of ICE’s clearing house operations and the global risk management team. He previously served as SVP of Financial Markets where he oversaw the development of initiatives within ICE’s exchanged listed and OTC financial markets and President of ICE Clear Credit, ICE’s credit default swap (CDS) clearing house.

Prior to joining ICE in February 2010, Edmonds was Chief Executive Officer of the International Derivatives Exchange Group (IDCG) a clearing house for interest rate swaps. Prior to IDCG, Edmonds was the Chief Development Officer for ICAP Energy. Edmonds held a variety of positions at ICAP between 2002 and 2008, and at APB Energy between 1997 and 2002. His professional career prior to APB Energy focused on advising businesses on strategic planning in the areas of technology, sales and marketing and operations.

Edmonds earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science from the University of Alabama at Birmingham.


Douglas Foley, Senior Vice President, HR & Administration,
Intercontinental Exchange

Doug Foley is Senior Vice President of HR & Administration at Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE). In addition to other duties, Foley has overall responsibility for ICE’s global human resource and real estate functions.

Prior to joining ICE in 2008, Foley worked in the Performance & Reward practice at Ernst & Young LLP in Atlanta. Foley previously worked in Global Compensation & Rewards at Delta Air Lines and began his career as a pension actuary, holding various roles at Ernst & Young LLP and Arthur Andersen LLP.

Foley holds a Bachelor of Science in Mathematics and a Master of Science in Risk Management & Insurance both from Georgia State University.


Stanislav Ivanov, President,
ICE Clear Credit

Stan Ivanov is President of ICE Clear Credit, an Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE) clearing house. He previously served as Chief Risk Officer at ICE Clear Credit and ICE Trust US. He was responsible for the design, implementation and execution of all credit default swap (CDS) risk management efforts. Ivanov was instrumental to the launch of the CDS clearing services at ICE Trust US and ICE Clear Europe in 2009.

Prior to joining ICE, Ivanov held the position of Chief Risk Officer at LJM Partners where he was responsible for the development of new investment strategies and portfolio hedging trading. From April 2000 to April 2007 Ivanov managed and supervised the quantitative risk management modeling efforts at The Options Clearing Corporation (OCC). He was the architect of OCC’s risk management approach known as System for Theoretical Analysis and Numerical Simulations (STANS).

Ivanov received his PhD degree from Tulane University in the field of Quantum Mechanics. He also holds a Master of Science in Financial Mathematics from The University of Chicago, and Masters’ degrees in Chemical Physics and International Relations from The University of Sofia, Bulgaria.


Mayur Kapani, Chief Technology Officer,
Intercontinental Exchange

Mayur Kapani is Chief Technology Officer (CTO) at Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE) where he oversees all technology groups within ICE, including NYSE and Interactive Data.

Prior to his role as CTO, Kapani served as SVP, Trading Technology. Since joining ICE, Kapani assumed technology responsibility for all ICE futures and options exchange platforms, ICE Trade Vault, ICE Benchmark Administration and SuperDerivatives. He also leads technology diligence on all of ICE’s acquisitions.

In 2016, Kapani was recognized by Institutional Investor in the Trading Technology 40, an industry ranking of the leading technology executives in the financial markets.

Before joining ICE in 2006, Kapani was Vice President of Options Development at the Philadelphia Stock Exchange, where he focused on the development of several initiatives including the transition of trading from a floor-based model to a high performance electronic platform.

Kapani holds a Bachelors of Technology degree from the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur and also completed the Wharton Management Program.


Elizabeth King, Chief Regulatory Officer,
Intercontinental Exchange
General Counsel, NYSE Group

Elizabeth King is Chief Regulatory Officer for Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE:ICE) and General Counsel of NYSE Group, a wholly-owned subsidy of ICE. As ICE’s CRO, King oversees the company’s global regulatory and legal affairs initiatives. She also manages the legal department for NYSE Group, which includes its five cash equity and two equity options markets, including the New York Stock Exchange.

Prior to joining ICE in March 2014, King was Deputy General Counsel and Global Head of Regulatory Affairs at securities trading firm KCG Holdings, Inc. Before joining KCG, she was Associate Director, Division of Trading and Markets at the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, where she was responsible for the SEC’s regulatory program for oversight of the securities markets.

King holds a J.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, and an A.B. from Duke University.


Kevin McClear, President,
ICE Clear U.S.

Kevin McClear is President of ICE Clear U.S., a wholly-owned clearing house of Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE). McClear oversees all regulatory, technology, operations and financial functions at the clearing house, which maintains offices in New York and Chicago.

Most recently, McClear served as the Corporate Risk Officer for Intercontinental Exchange. His responsibilities included enterprise risk management, corporate insurance and business continuity and planning with respect to ICE’s clearing houses, exchanges, data and benchmark services. Previously, he served as the General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of ICE Clear Credit LLC, ICE’s U.S. clearinghouse for credit default swaps. Prior to joining ICE in 2009, he served as President of The Clearing Corporation. In addition to holding various legal positions in the financial services industry, McClear traded futures and futures options early in his career.

McClear holds a Juris Doctorate degree from Northwestern University School of Law and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science from Denison University.


Brookly McLaughlin, Vice President,
Corporate Affairs and Sustainability, Intercontinental Exchange

Brookly McLaughlin is Vice President for Corporate Affairs and Sustainability at Intercontinental Exchange (NYSE: ICE). In this role, she oversees the company’s approach to sustainability, including working with the New York Stock Exchange and its community of publicly-listed companies. She also oversees internal communications and employee learning and development programs. McLaughlin provides regular updates on ESG initiatives to ICE’s Nominating & Governance Committee and Board of Directors.

Prior to joining ICE, McLaughlin worked for the Chicago Climate Exchange, which was acquired by Intercontinental Exchange in 2010. For the previous decade, McLaughlin was based in Washington, DC. She spent five years in the US House of Representatives Financial Services Committee communications office and five years at the US Treasury Department, including as the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs under US Treasury Secretary Henry M. Paulson.

McLaughlin holds a Bachelor of Arts in journalism and political science from Drake University.


Joanne Rowe, Corporate Risk Officer,
Intercontinental Exchange

Joanne Rowe is the Corporate Risk Officer for Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE). Rowe is responsible for oversight of the Company’s Enterprise Risk Management program including ICE’s clearing houses, exchanges, data and benchmark services.

Most recently, she served as the CRO for North American Exchanges for Intercontinental Exchange. Prior to this role, she served as the Senior Director of Internal Audit for the New York Stock Exchange as well as other leadership roles in risk and internal audit across ICE’s global business units. Prior to Intercontinental Exchange’s acquisition of NYSE Euronext in 2013, Rowe served as Managing Director of Audit Services for the London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE) and Euronext. Rowe began her career in the UK civil service where she worked in a range of assurance roles for the Ministry of Justice and Her Majesty’s Court Service. Rowe’s career in financial services began in 2007 where she played a key role as Program Manager of the integration of BNP Paribas and Fortis in the UK.

Rowe holds a Bachelor of Arts in Economics and Politics from the University of Essex. She is a Chartered Internal Auditor and holds professional qualifications of the Institute of Internal Auditors of the UK.


Hester Serafini, President,
ICE Clear Europe

Hester Serafini is President of ICE Clear Europe, a wholly-owned clearing house of Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE). She oversees all technology, operations and financial functions at the London-based clearing house.

Most recently, Serafini served as President and COO of ICE Clear U.S. Prior to joining ICE in March 2016, Serafini was European Head of OTC Clearing and Intermediation at J.P. Morgan, where she led the OTC clearing and intermediation business for credit, FX and rates derivatives in Europe, the Middle East and Africa.

Serafini started her career in finance at Goldman Sachs where she held several positions, including Chief Risk Officer of the Equities Division, Chief Risk Officer of Fixed Income Prime Brokerage and U.S. Head of the Structured Equity-Linked Notes business. At Goldman Sachs, she was also a member of the firm-wide and equities risk committees as well as the global compliance and control committee.

Serafini holds a PhD in Mathematics from the Courant Institute at New York University and a Masters in Applied Mathematics from Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands.


Octavia Spencer, Vice President, Associate General Counsel & Corporate Secretary,
Intercontinental Exchange

Octavia Spencer is Vice President, Associate General Counsel & Corporate Secretary at Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE). In this role, she focuses on public company compliance and corporate governance matters.

Spencer joined ICE in April 2014. She previously served as Associate General Counsel & Corporate Secretary. Prior to joining ICE, Spencer worked as an attorney at McKenna, Long & Aldridge (now known as Dentons) where she practiced in the corporate law group and focused on public company compliance and corporate governance matters, public offerings and private placements and M&A work.

Spencer holds a Juris Doctor from the Duke University School of Law and a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.


Andrew Surdykowski, General Counsel,
Intercontinental Exchange

Andrew Surdykowski is General Counsel of Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE). Surdykowski oversees ICE’s legal affairs globally, including public company compliance, corporate governance matters and serving as ICE’s key legal advisor.

Surdykowski joined ICE in September 2005. He previously served as Senior Vice President, Associate General Counsel and Assistant Corporate Secretary. Before joining ICE, Surdykowski was an attorney at McKenna, Long & Aldridge (now known as Dentons), where he practiced in the corporate law group. His experience at McKenna, Long & Aldridge included representing a broad array of clients in matters dealing with securities, mergers and acquisitions, corporate governance, finance and private equity.

Surdykowski holds a law degree from the Georgia State University College of Law and a Bachelor of Science degree in Management from the Georgia Institute of Technology.


John Tuttle, Vice Chairman & Chief Commercial Officer,
NYSE Group

John Tuttle is Vice Chairman and Chief Commercial Officer for NYSE Group, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE).

As member of the senior leadership team, Tuttle leads the commercial outreach and business development of NYSE Group. In this role, he oversees NYSE’s Global Listings, Capital Markets, and Exchange Traded Products businesses and is responsible for managing the Exchange’s relationships with more than 2,200 NYSE-listed companies and overseeing the creation of new offerings in emerging and growing sectors of the economy.

Since joining NYSE in 2007, Tuttle has served in a succession of roles including Chief Operating Officer, Global Head of Listings, Chief of Staff, Head of Corporate Affairs, and as Managing Director of Global Affairs and Government Relations for NYSE Euronext, then-parent company of the New York Stock Exchange as well as five other financial exchanges in Europe. Prior to joining the organization, Tuttle held various roles in the United States Government, including at the United States Department of State and at the White House.

John holds a MBA from the University of Notre Dame and BBA from Eastern Michigan University.


Joe Tyrrell, President,
ICE Mortgage Technology

Joe Tyrrell is President of ICE Mortgage Technology, the leading digital mortgage technology platform and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (ICE: NYSE). ICE continues to bring efficiency and transparency to the mortgage finance industry through ICE Mortgage Technology. Through the Ellie Mae acquisition in September 2020, the expanded platform, for the first time, will bring together all the key stakeholders, MERS, Simplifile and Ellie Mae, from origination to the final settlement under one platform.

Tyrrell previously served as Chief Operating Officer of Ellie Mae prior to ICE’s acquisition. As COO, he oversaw technology, product strategy, product management and the business and corporate development efforts. He joined Ellie Mae in 2002 and held various leadership positions including EVP of Corporate Strategy, SVP of Corporate Strategy, SVP of Client Management and Business Development. Tyrrell previously served as VP at Providian Financial in addition to other executive positions within the mortgage industry.

Tyrrell holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Business Management from St. Mary’s College.


David Underwood, Chief Audit Executive, Intercontinental Exchange

David Underwood is Chief Audit Executive of Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE). He is responsible for ICE’s global audit program, which includes testing to ensure compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act worldwide.

Underwood joined ICE in April 2007 when the Internal Audit department officially launched. He previously held various positions in internal audit at Glenayre Technologies and BellSouth Corporation. Underwood began his career in public accounting at Ernst & Young, LLP serving primarily real estate and manufacturing clients in Birmingham, Alabama.

Underwood holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Accounting and Real Estate Finance from the University of Alabama-Birmingham. He is a Certified Public Accountant.


Mark Wassersug, Chief Operating Officer,
Intercontinental Exchange

Mark Wassersug is Chief Operating Officer at Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (NYSE: ICE). He is responsible for the day-to-day operations and support of the global infrastructure, data centers, networks and corporate IT systems that support Intercontinental Exchange and its subsidiaries including the New York Stock Exchange, ICE’s global derivatives trading and clearing businesses, and multiple data analytics, reporting and delivery platforms. Wassersug is also responsible for the customer service teams and oversees all disaster recovery and business continuity planning and operations.

Wassersug previously served as SVP of Operations. Prior to joining ICE in 2001, he worked as a strategic planning and technology consultant in Internet infrastructure and ecommerce for Exodus Communication.

Wassersug earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Civil Engineering from Lehigh University and completed a Master of Business Administration at the Goizueta Business School at Emory University.


Stuart Williams, President,
ICE Futures Europe

Stuart Williams is the President of ICE Futures Europe, Intercontinental Exchange, Inc.’s (NYSE: ICE) London-based global futures and options exchange, which hosts a variety of energy, interest rate, equity derivative and commodity markets. From July 2016 Williams served as the Chief Operating Officer of ICE Futures Europe and before that as Director of Corporate Development.

Prior to this, Williams was at LIFFE and played a key role in the transition of LIFFE’s clearing and trading to ICE’s clearing and trading platforms, and the Exchange’s integration into ICE.

Before joining LIFFE, Williams spent 10 years consulting with Protiviti and Accenture, working on a broad range of initiatives with exchanges, clearing houses and other financial sector clients.

Williams holds a bachelor of engineering degree from the University of Pretoria.